Ubiquinol (Reduced CoQ10): A novel yet ubiquitous nutrient for heart disease

Marc Maurice Cohen

Abstract


Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a ubiquitous nutrient in human cells where it is essential for mitrochondrial energy production. CoQ10 exists in both an oxidized (ubiquinone) and reduced form (ubiquinol), with ubiquinol being the bioactive form. In addition to its use in cellular ATP production ubiquinol acts as a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant that protects lipid membranes and lipoproteins from oxidative stress. Lower circulating levels of ubiquinol are found in patients with cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure (CHF) with deficiency being greater with increasing severity of disease. CoQ10 supplementation is well tolerated and without toxicity or drug interactions and there is evidence to suggest that CoQ10 supplementation may provide clinical improvements for patients with CHF patients as well as for patients with hypertension, statin-induced myopathy and for those undergoing cardiac surgery. Most research to date has focused on ubiquinone rather than ubiquinol, which has only recently become available as a supplemental nutrient. Effective doses of ubiquinol for congestive cardiac failure range from 100mg to 600mg/day yet most research to date has been limited to relatively small, short-term, and potentially biased trials that have used low doses of ubiquinone rather than ubiquinol. The evidence of clinical benefits with CoQ10 supplementation in cardiovascular disease is largely inconclusive and further large-scale trials are required to determine if the higher bioavailability and more potent activity of ubiquinol produces better clinical responses than ubiquinone. Ubiquinol therefore remains an interesting non-prescription, nutritional supplement that may be a useful adjunctive therapy for cardiac complaints despite not yet being recognized as a form of standard care. 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Kalén A, Appelkvist EL, Dallner G. Age-related changes in the lipid compositions of rat and human tissues. Lipids. 1989;24(7):579-84.

Ochoa JJ, Diaz-Castro J, Lambrechts P. CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Novel, safe dietary supplementation for trained and untrained athletes. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech. 2013;24(6):31-4.

Ernster L, Forsmark-Andree P. Ubiquinol: An endogenous antioxidant in aerobic organisms. Clinical Investigator, Supplement. 1993;71(8):S 60-S 5.

Maroz A, Anderson RF, Smith RAJ, Murphy MP. Reactivity of ubiquinone and ubiquinol with superoxide and the hydroperoxyl radical: implications for in vivo antioxidant activity. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2009;46(1):105-9.

Zlatohlavek L, Vrablik M, Grauova B, Motykova E, Ceska R. The effect of coenzyme Q10 in statin myopathy. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2012;33(SUPPL. 2):98-101.

Lambrechts P, Siebrecht S. Coenzyme Q10 and ubiquinol as adjunctive therapy for heart failure. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech. 2013;24(2):60-2.

Mohr D, Bowry VW, Stocker R. Dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoprotein to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)/Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1992;1126(3):247-54.

Rosenfeldt F, Marasco S, Lyon W, Wowk M, Sheeran F, Bailey M, et al. Coenzyme Q10 therapy before cardiac surgery improves mitochondrial function and in vitro contractility of myocardial tissue. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2005;129(1):25-32.

Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM. Comparison study of plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in healthy subjects supplemented with ubiquinol versus ubiquinone. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development. 2014;3(1):13-7.

Overvad K, Diamant B, Holm L, Hølmer G, Mortensen SA, Stender S. Coenzyme Q10 in health and disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;53(10):764-70.

Folkers K, Vadhanavikit S, Mortensen SA. Biochemial rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1985;82(3):901-4.

Molyneux SL, Florkowski CM, George PM, Pilbrow AP, Frampton CM, Lever M, et al. Coenzyme Q10. An Independent Predictor of Mortality in Chronic Heart Failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008;52(18):1435-41.

Lagendijk J, Ubbink JB, Delport R, Hayward Vermaak WJ, Human JA. Ubiquinol/ubiquinone ratio as marker of oxidative stress in coronary artery disease. Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology. 1997;95(1):11-20.

Kontush A, Reich A, Baum K, Spranger T, Finckh B, Kohlschütter A, et al. Plasma ubiquinol-10 is decreased in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Atherosclerosis. 1997;129(1):119-26.

Olivieri F, Lazzarini R, Babini L, Prattichizzo F, Rippo MR, Tiano L, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of ubiquinol-10 on young and senescent endothelial cells via miR-146a modulation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2013;63:410-20.

Littarru GP, Tiano L, Belardinelli R, Watts GF. Coenzyme Q 10, endothelial function, and cardiovascular disease. BioFactors. 2011;37(5):366-73.

Littarru GP, Lambrechts P. Coenzyme Q 10: Multiple benefits in one ingredient. OCL - Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides. 2011;18(2):76-82.

Littarru GP, Tiano L. Clinical aspects of coenzyme Q10: An update. Nutrition. 2010;26(3):250-4.

Alf D, Schmidt, M.E., Siebrecht, S.C. Ubiquinol supplementation enhances peak power production in trained athletes: a double-blind, placebo controlled study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013;10(24):2-8.

Fotino AD, Thompson-Paul AM, Bazzano LA. Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on heart failure: A meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(2):268-75.

Madmani ME, Yusuf Solaiman, A., Tamr Agha, K., Madmani, Y., Shahrour, Y., Essali, A., Kadro, W. . Coenzyme Q10 for heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014(6):Art. No.: CD008684.

Rosenfeldt F, Hilton D, Pepe S, Krum H. Systematic review of effect of coenzyme Q10 in physical exercise, hypertension and heart failure. BioFactors. 2003;18(1-4):91-100.

Pepe S, Marasco SF, Haas SJ, Sheeran FL, Krum H, Rosenfeldt FL. Coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrion. 2007;7(SUPPL.):S154-S67.

Rosenfeldt FL, Haas SJ, Krum H, Hadj A, Ng K, Leong JY, et al. Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: A meta-analysis of the clinical trials. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2007;21(4):297-306.

Ho MJ, Bellusci, A., Wright, J.M. . Blood pressure lowering efficacy of coenzyme Q10 for primary hypertension. . Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009(4):Art. No.: CD007435.

Rosenfeldt FL, Pepe S, Linnane A, Nagley P, Rowland M, Ou R, et al. Coenzyme Q10 protects the aging heart against stress: Studies in rats, human tissues, and patients. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences2002. p. 355-9.

Lamperti C, Naini AB, Lucchini V, Prelle A, Bresolin N, Moggio M, et al. Muscle coenzyme Q10 level in statin-related myopathy. Arch Neurol. 2005;62(11):1709-12.

Ghirlanda G, Oradei A, Manto A, Lippa S, Uccioli L, Caputo S, et al. Evidence of plasma CoQ10-lowering effect by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Pharmacol. 1993;33(3):226-9.

Nawarskas JJ. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and coenzyme Q10. Cardiol Rev. 2005;13(2):76-9.

Fedacko J, Pella D, Fedackova P, Hänninen O, Tuomainen P, Jarcuska P, et al. Coenzyme Q10 and selenium in statin-associated myopathy treatment. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;91(2):165-70.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14800/janhm.647

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Marc Maurice Cohen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.